A few high-intensity armed conflicts are causing large numbers of civilian casualties. Progress promoting peace and justice, together with effective, accountable and inclusive institutions, remains uneven across and within regions. Many regions of the world continue to suffer untold horrors as a result of armed conflict or other forms of violence that occur within societies and at the domestic level. Advances in promoting the rule of law and access to justice are uneven.
However, progress is being made in regulations to promote public access to information, albeit slowly, and in strengthening institutions upholding human rights at the national level. Advances in ending violence, promoting the rule of law, strengthening institutions and increasing access to justice are uneven and continue to deprive millions of their security, rights and opportunities and undermine the delivery of public services and broader economic development.
Attacks on civil society are also holding back development progress. Renewed efforts are essential to move towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal Welcome to the United Nations. Sustainable Development Goal Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
More information. Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere. Number of victims of intentional homicide per , population, by sex and age. Conflict-related deaths per , population, by sex, age and cause. Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live. Malcolm, however, grew increasingly restive as the Nation of Islam failed to join in the mounting civil rights struggle and became convinced that Elijah Muhammad was lacking in sincerity, a view painfully validated by corruption at the highest level of the organization.
A few months later, he left the organization, traveled to Mecca, and discovered that orthodox Muslims preach equality of the races, which led him to abandon the argument that whites are devils. Having returned to America as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, he remained convinced that racism had corroded the spirit of America and that only blacks could free themselves. In June , he founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity and moved increasingly in the direction of socialism.
More sophisticated than in his Black Muslim days and of growing moral stature, he was assassinated by a Black Muslim at a rally of his organization in New York on February 21, Malcolm X had predicted that, though he had but little time to live, he would be more important in death than in life.
Foreshadowings of his martyrdom are found in The Autobiography of Malcolm X. The almost painful honesty that enabled him to find his way from degradation to devotion to his people, the modest lifestyle that kept him on the edge of poverty, and the distance he somehow managed to put between himself and racial hatred serve, in that volume, as poignant reminders of human possibility and achievement.
Influenced largely by Malcolm, in the summer of members of SNCC called for black power for black people. His clarity on this matter, as America continues its retreat from its commitment to full freedom for his people, has guaranteed for him pride of place among black leaders. Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, Editors. All rights reserved. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.
His father may have been killed by white supremacists. Especially one in which a prominent civil-rights figure delivers a stern rebuke to his race. They are also an intense reaction towards restrictive immigration, citizenship and integration policies and discourses. Attempts to defend national identity have also manifested in controversial and highly politicised public debates about restricting symbolic expressions of diversity, with recent debates being largely preoccupied with symbols of Muslim cultures. In November the Swiss people overwhelmingly voted in favour of a proposal from the far-right Swiss People's Party SVP to introduce a national ban on the construction of minarets on mosques.
A number of European countries, including Belgium, France, Italy and Spain, have in recent months moved towards legislating to ban the full-body covering garment, known as the burqa, which is worn by a relatively small minority of Muslim women in Europe.
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Critics argue that debates about the symbols of Islam detract public attention from the 'real issues' facing Muslim communities, including, racism, educational outcomes of young people, and broader indices of integration. Europe is currently hallmarked by greater mobility of its populations, for many different reasons, and by the emergence of minorities. Every state needs to learn to take an intercultural approach to dealing with the multicultural society which is developing. Multiculturalism was a policy introduced in Australia to deal with the settlement needs of migrant communities and was conceived as a means of recognising the preservation of cultural identities and achieving social justice and social cohesion.
However, in 30 years of the policy's existence at various levels of government, both in Australia and overseas, the policy and concept of multiculturalism have undergone considerable debate and change in both governmental and academic discourses. Irrespective of debates and changing political and community perceptions of the term 'multiculturalism', societies have inexorably become more diverse in that period, with the result that, as recognised by the NSW Community Relations Commission, in March , the need for the government services and programs established under policies of multiculturalism has not diminished, but is only expected to increase.
Globally, migration is a growing and increasingly complex phenomenon as people are moving and forging connections between countries in rapidly evolving ways. In considering the utility of a concept and policy like multiculturalism questions arise as to whether it can be further developed, or whether there is a need to find new concepts in the national vernacular to articulate the contemporary nature of diversity and change in Australian society.
In order to understand the impact of multiculturalism on Australian society and to assess the ongoing relevance and potential of multiculturalism for dealing with contemporary challenges there is a need for clarification in public debate of the nature and basis of multiculturalism as it was appropriated and developed in Australia. As government policy in Australia, multiculturalism was primarily concerned with cultural and linguistic diversity; while recognising the need to cater to the linguistic needs of ethnic communities, unlike Canada, multiculturalism in Australia was always premised on the supremacy of the English language; and it was premised on the supremacy of existing institutions and the rule of law.
As Australian Government policy articulated the relevance of multiculturalism to all Australians in the s, multiculturalism began to grow beyond its origins as an element of settlement policy to become a pillar of Australia's nation-building narratives. While programs and services under policies of multiculturalism have been serving migrants entering Australia from different parts of the world for decades, today there are multiple generations of Australians of various cultural backgrounds who have grown up in societies marked by diversity, and growing global connectedness, and who as a result have increasingly complex claims of identity and belonging.
Can the concept of multiculturalism contribute to expanding the capacity of Australian identity narratives to encompass multiple forms of belonging? Does multiculturalism have a role to play in enabling the demographic diversity of the Australian community to be represented and reflected in cultural, institutional and governmental structures of Australian society? Do the experiences of other countries illuminate the role that discursive narratives of multiculturalism play in articulating and increasing acceptance of, and engagement with, multicultural realities?
Many of the issues faced by multicultural societies today transcend national borders and raise broader questions about how liberal democracies are to respond to the challenges of diversity. As a concept and policy that was originally concerned primarily with linguistic and cultural diversity both in Australia and overseas, how can multiculturalism deal with growing religious diversity and the issues raised by religious expression, often mediated by cultural practices, in secular liberal democratic spaces?
Does multiculturalism have a role to play in addressing enduring social inequalities and the challenges faced by minority communities in diverse societies such as Australia and elsewhere? What is the role of the media and educational institutions in contributing to understanding across differences in multicultural societies?
Public discourse has played a central role in shaping the way that Australians have come to view multiculturalism as a concept and policy. In the context of increasing diversity, the question remains as to how multiculturalism can be meaningfully engaged with, and whether such engagement can contribute to the development of new concepts that can enable more productive public discourses about the challenges and transformations resulting from increasing diversity.
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Adelaide, Queensland Government, A multicultural future Western Australia. Northern Territory. Australian Capital Territory. Another significant piece of legislation enacted in this period was the Australian Citizenship Act Cth. M Lopez, The origins of multiculturalism in Australian politics —, op. M Lopez, The origins of multiculturalism in Australia politics — , op.
Ibid, p. See the section entitled 'State and territory multicultural policies' below. I am grateful to Dr. James Jupp for this point. Ibid, pp.
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G Tavan, John Howard's multicultural paradox , op. Australian Government, Our nation: multicultural Australia and the 21 st century , op. The Committee was established to enquire into and report on Australia's immigration policies, and reported to the Minister for Immigration, Local Government and Ethnic Affairs. NMAC, Australian multiculturalism for a new century: towards inclusiveness, op. J Jupp, From white Australia to Woomera , op. Andrew Jakubowicz characterises this period as signalling a dramatic change in the multicultural agenda, A Jakubowicz, Auditing multiculturalism: the Australian empire a generation after Galbally , op cit.
Hanson had previously been selected as a Liberal candidate for Oxley but was later disendorsed by the Liberal Party for her controversial views on services for Aboriginal Australians. NMAC, Australian multiculturalism for a new century: towards inclusiveness , op. Australian Government, A new agenda for multicultural Australia , op. Australian Government, Multicultural Australia: united in diversity— updating the New agenda for multicultural Australia: strategic directions for — , op.
Australian Government, Multicultural Australia: united in diversity—updating the New agenda for multicultural Australia: strategic directions for — , op. A Jakubowicz, Auditing multiculturalism: the Australian empire a generation after Galbally , op. The National Action Plan was developed in consultation with the Muslim community and state and territory governments following the London bombings of July Australian Government, Budget measures: budget paper no.
P Karvelas, 'Multiculturalism departs stage left from job's title', The Australian , 15 September , p. P Karvelas, 'Multiculturalism departs stage left from job's title', op.
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Lopez argues that '[t]he establishment of the Ethnic Communities' Council of Victoria is one of the most significant events in the progress of multiculturalism. It had a profound impact on how multiculturalists were able to present themselves and their demands to governments, ethnic groups and the general public; and on the way governments, ethnic groups and the general public perceived multiculturalists and their goals, principles, values and policies', M Lopez, The origins of multiculturalism in Australian politics —, op.
The Federation of Ethnic Communities Councils FECCA is the national peak body representing ethnic communities councils and continues to be outspoken on issues of multiculturalism. For the principles of multiculturalism as enumerated in s. The principles of Victorian multiculturalism are set out at s. Ibid, See for example, the results of a study on attitudes towards Muslims in Britain, France, Germany, Spain and the United States, which found that security concerns are the strongest driver of negative attitudes towards Muslims across all five countries, R Wike and B Grim, 'Western views towards Muslims: evidence from a cross-national survey', International Journal of Public Opinion Research , vol.
For explanations of these various schools of multicultural thought and an indication of the various individuals who supported each school please refer to Lopez's detailed study, M Lopez, The origins of multiculturalism in Australian politics —, op. Lopez also identifies others who theorise across various schools of multicultural thought to advance notions of 'democratic pluralism' Jayasuriya , post-nationalist 'civic pluralism' Kalantzis , and 'citizenship for a multicultural society' Theophanus.
T Dreher and C Ho, 'New conversations on gender, race and religion', in T Dreher and C Ho eds , Beyond the hijab debates: new conversations on gender, race and religion , op. M Lopez, 'Reflection on the state of Australian multiculturalism and the emerging multicultural debate in Australia ', People and Place , vol. See also Senate Select Committee for an Inquiry into a certain maritime incident , A certain maritime incident , op.
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M Grewcock, Border Crimes: Australia's war on illicit migrants , op. J Collins, 'The landmark of Cronulla', op. An eyewitness account of the Cronulla demonstration of 11 December ', People and Place , vol. See G Tavan, John Howard's multicultural paradox , op. However, fellow Liberal politician, the Federal Member for Kooyong, Petrou Georgiou, criticised the abandonment of the term multiculturalism, see P Georgiou, Australian citizenship in the 21 st century: speech to the CO.
J Collins, 'Crossing borders: lessons from the Cronulla riots', op. See also, J Masanauskas, 'New word of the day' op. Y Narushima, 'Mixing pot is back in multicultural Australia,' op. For example, the Victorian Government's multicultural policy recognises the changing nature of needs and expectations arising from the increase in transient migrant groups, such as international students and temporary skilled migrants, VMC, All of us: Victoria's multicultural policy , op.
S Marginson, International student security: globalisation, state, university , speech to the World Universities Forum , Davos, 9—11 January , p. S Castles and M Miller, The age of migration: international population movements in the modern world , op. W Kymlicka, The current state of multiculturalism in Canada and research themes on Canadian multiculturalism — , report prepared for Citizenship and Immigration Canada, January , p. W Kymlicka, The current state of multiculturalism in Canada and research themes on Canadian multiculturalism — , op. J Reitz, 'Getting past "yes" or "no": our debate over multiculturalism needs more nuance', op.
C Wong, 'Who belongs? U George, 'Immigration to Canada', op. D Leal, 'Latinos, immigration and social cohesion in the US', op. However, in a sign of enduring unease with the presence of Islam in the US in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks, proposals for the building of a new Islamic Centre near the site of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Centre, provoked protest, with one of the organisers of the Centre characterising opposition to the plan as 'beyond Islamophobia.
For example: debates about the 'reasonable accommodation' of minorities in Quebec were followed by the introduction of a bill in Quebec's provincial legislature in March requiring Muslim women or others who use face-covering veils to remove them in order to work in the public sector or do business with government officials.
As Reitz points out, Quebec's preference for a provincial policy of 'inter-culturalisme' reflects the political origins of the policy of multiculturalism in Canada, coming as it did in the wake of a resurgence in Quebec nationalism in the s, J Reitz, 'Getting past "yes" or "no": our debate over multiculturalism needs more nuance', op. D Coleman, 'Immigration and ethnic change in low fertility countries: a third demographic transition', Population and Development Review , vol.
Commission of the European Communities, A common agenda for integration: framework for the integration of third-country nationals in the European Union , op.
See for example, E Vasta, 'From ethnic minorities to ethnic majority policy: multiculturalism and the shift to assimilationism in the Netherlands', Ethnic and Racial Studies , vol. A Schmelz, 'Immigration and integration policies and practices in Germany', op. I am grateful to Dr James Jupp for this point. A cross-national study of public opinion found that the perception of the existence of extremism in the Muslim community and concomitant security threats were the key factor behind negative views of Muslims, R Wike and B Grim, 'Western views towards Muslims: evidence from a cross-national survey', op.
Anti-immigration parties have in recent years obtained over ten per cent of the vote in elections in seven countries across Europe, including 27 per cent in Switzerland, A Markus, J Jupp and P McDonald, Australia's immigration revolution , op. One press report indicated that 'Sweden has been regarded by many outsiders as a bastion of liberalism and tolerance—immune from far right politics.
However, the integration of minorities The results of a study on attitudes to Muslims in Britain, France, Germany, Spain and the United States found that security concerns are the primary driver of negative views towards Muslims and that even concerns about cultural threats ultimately feed security concerns: 'It is not so much a perception that Islam is incompatible with Western society that leads to negativity, as it is the perception that extremism exists within the community of Muslims', R Wike and B Grim, 'Western views towards Muslims: evidence from a cross-national survey', op.
I Michalowski, 'Immigration to France: the challenge of immigrant integration', op. C Slade, 'Shifting landscapes of citizenship', op. S Carrera, 'A comparison of integration programmes in the EU: trends and weaknesses', op. France, the UK and the Netherlands, for example, also introduced integration measures as a condition for entry, that are imposed on migrants prior to their departure from their country of origin.
Similarly, in the UK and Germany, whereas naturalisation 'used to be perceived as a means for integration' naturalisation has been recast as 'the finalisation of a completed integration process', R van Oers, 'Citizenship tests in the Netherlands, Germany and the UK', in R van Oers, E Ersboll, D Kostakopoulou eds , A re-definition of belonging?
R Minder, 'Spain's senate vows to ban the burqa', op. See also: T Modood, Multiculturalism—a civic idea , op.
An example of such a reconceptualisation was contained in the Report of the Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain, which attempted to 'usher in a new national narrative of Britain' that emphasised a new understanding of community and cultural belonging, Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain CMEB , The future of multi-ethnic Britain , Profile Books, London, , cited in S Vertovec, Transnational challenges to the 'new' multiculturalism , paper presented to the ASA conference, University of Sussex, 30 May—2 April , p. James Jupp for points raised in this paragraph and key points made elsewhere in the conclusion.
Y Narushima, Mixing pot is back in multicultural Australia , op. For copyright reasons some linked items are only available to members of Parliament. Multiculturalism: a review of Australian policy statements and recent debates in Australia and overseas Research Paper no. Executive summary Multiculturalism has been a contested policy and concept since its introduction in Australia in the s. While maintaining some core principles, in the three decades since its introduction, federal multicultural policy statements have evolved in response to changing government priorities and responses to the challenges facing Australian society.
While Australian multicultural policy has its roots in government responses to the post-settlement issues facing migrants, through the s and s policy was articulated more broadly as an element of Australia's nation building narratives.