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Measurement of blood glucose levels BGLs is a basic procedure that diabetic patients need to perform several times a day. The conventional standard protocol for on-site measurement, despite several advantages such as portability, low cost, fast response time, and ease of operation, is based on the finger-prick technique to extract blood samples.

This process is invasive and cannot provide continuous monitoring. Towards the achievement of non-invasive and continuous BGL monitoring, we have developed two measurement methods based on the continuous-wave photoacoustic CW-PA protocol and we performed preliminary in vitro tests with aqueous solutions. The first method relies on the measurement of the frequency shift induced by the change in the composition of the propagation medium. This method is equivalent to an acoustic velocity measurement and provides high sensitivity but no selectivity to glucose compound.

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The second approach utilizes simultaneous optical excitation at two wavelengths for compound-selective measurements. After correcting the frequency shift mentioned previously, this protocol allows measurements equivalent to a differential absorption coefficient one at the two wavelengths used.

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It then combines the advantages of absorption spectroscopy without the limitation from scattering due to the use of acoustic detection. Furthermore, the combination of the two methods can be generalized to systems involving more than one changing parameter by using not only two optical wavelengths for the excitation sequence but also several pairs of wavelength sequentially.

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These methods then represent an important step forward the non-invasive, selective, and continuous measurements of glucose compound concentrations from a complex mixture, typically blood. In particular, pervasive technologies have been identified as a strong asset for achieving the vision of user-centred preventive healthcare.

However, there are engineering problems to be solved before many of the envisioned applications in healthcare can become a reality. The objective of this chapter is to present future research demands in pervasive sensing by means of miniaturised wearable and implantable sensors featuring ultra-low power consumption, high portability, and robustness.

At the same time, since many emerging non-invasive measurement techniques related to monitoring physiological and psychological status of individuals rely on bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy BIS , we also consider the perspectives for bioimpedance applications, referring in particular to the use of CMOS technology for chip-scale integration of BIS readout electronics.

The chapter provides a report on the wireless biomedical signal acquisition system that has been developed and applied recently in a hospital. The authors describe a universal wireless device bioelectric amplifier with a case study of the wireless communication. Advantages and disadvantages of considered standards have been described. The most important feature of the bioelectric amplifier is the software configuration ability towards specific requirements that occur during the registration of different signals.

The portable unit is under clinical trials tests and preliminary evaluation indicates acceptance by medical staff. Additional advantages are the relatively low cost of manufacture and the possibility of application of other wireless transmission standards. This paper describes the basic system concept for pervasive healthcare and presents a wireless sensing system for healthcare to monitor physiological state in the living environment.

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The importance of constantly monitoring, analysing and utilizing human daily information has been growing in the area of healthcare. The introduction of ICT in the areas of medicine and welfare has created new systems and services for healthcare and can help promote disease prevention and health maintenance through wirelessly delivered healthcare and ubiquitous medicine. The objective of the work is to establish a wearable wireless body area network BAN system that is useful in pervasive healthcare.

In this work we developed a wireless sensing system to monitor thermal physiological state. Sensors which make up a wireless system are varied depending on the purpose of use of the system. Wearable small-sized and wireless sensors which consume little power have to be developed to measure the desired vital signals or human data.

Moreover, reliable wireless communication network is needed to obtain the data of multiple wearable sensors in real time. BAN can realize wireless connectivity among sensors deployed on human body. The important indicators for monitoring the thermal physiological state are core body temperature, microclimate within clothing, skin temperature, heart rate and movement.

To develop the monitoring system, ear-worn temperature sensors, thermo-hygrometers and skin temperature sensors were newly developed. The earworn temperature sensor enables a continuous non-invasive measurement of the equivalent of core body temperature in daily life. The thermo-hygrometer can measure microclimate within clothing.

These sensors transmit data wirelessly in synchronization with each other. The level of data loss in wireless communication was low making it possible to estimate physiological state using more than 10 sensors simultaneously, even though both the IEEE The application system for the prevention of heat stroke was evaluated on two situations. Manikannan 2 M. Related article at Pubmed , Scholar Google. Pervasive computing is an emerging field of research that brings in revolutionary paradigms. The goal of pervasive computing is to create ambient intelligence where network devices embedded in the environment provide unremarkable connectivity and services all the time.

Thus improving human experience and quality of life without explicit awareness of the underlying communications and computing technologies. Pervasive systems must offer an open, extensible, and evolving portfolio of services which integrate sensor data from a diverse range of sources. The core challenge is to provide appropriate and consistent adaptive behaviors for these services in the face of huge volumes of sensor data exhibiting varying degrees of precision, accuracy and dynamism.

Pervasive computing is more environmentcentric than either Web-based or mobile computing.

Intelligent Pervasive Computing Systems for Personalized Healthcare

This means that applications will guide the middleware and networking issues to a large extent. Consider a heart patient wearing an implanted monitor that communicates wirelessly with computers trained to detect and report abnormalities.

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The monitor should know when to raise the alarm, based on its knowledge about the environment. So this is much more than simple wireless communication. Sensors in pervasive computing are deployed anywhere and on any objects or human bodies.

DiaSim - Health care scenario

Applications that provide customized services to users are based on this sensor data. However, sensor data exhibits high complexity different modalities, huge volumes, and inter-dependency relationships between sources , dynamism real-time update and critical ageing , accuracy, precision and timeliness.

A pervasive computing system should therefore not concern itself with the individual pieces of sensor data which room the user is in, what his heart rate or blood pressure is : rather, this information should be interpreted into a higher, domain-relevant concept, such as whether the user is suffering a heart attack or exercising. The proposed system is particularly targeted at chronic patients who may wish to play a more active role in their disease management throughout their daily activities.

It has been implemented using a mobile device and a wearable multi sensing device for unobtrusive health monitoring. Popular micro blogging services a form of micro journalism for posting small pieces of content are utilized, in order to demonstrate the social networking functionality. Many of the portable medical devices can be integrated in the handheld wireless device.

These would allow the detection of pulse-rate, blood pressure, and level of alcohol. The main purpose of the system is the chronic patients are rescued from the unexpected disaster. A pervasive health system enabling self-management of chronic patients during their everyday activities. In Figure 3. All captured information is replicated to the back-end platform of the Medical Center offering the services and acts as the MBU surrogate host.

The Communication Controller module is responsible for utilizing and controlling the entire client communication with the back-end infrastructure, persisting also unsent information due to potential network unavailability for later transmission. As part of these interactive environments, natural user interfaces expressed by leap motion and Kinect, daily used smart physical rehabilitation equipment, such as smart walkers and crutches, wearable motor activity monitors with EMG, force and acceleration measurement capabilities will be discussed.

Sensing technologies materialized by piezo resistive force sensors microwave radar motion sensors, MEMS inertial sensors, optical fiber sensors will be presented together appropriate signal processing techniques implemented on client side or on the cloud side.

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Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania, in and he received the PhD degree in from the same university, and university habilitation in from Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal. In the period he worked as assistant and assistant professor at Technical University of Iasi.

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His fields of interests are smart sensors for biomedical and environmental applications, pervasive sensing and computing, wireless sensor networks, signal processing with application in biomedical and telecommunications, non-destructive testing and diagnosis based on eddy currents smart sensors, computational intelligence with application in automated measurement systems. He was principal researcher of different projects including EHR-Physio regarding the implementation of Electronic Health Records for Physiotherapy and he is currently principal researcher of TailorPhy project Smart Sensors and Tailored Environments for Physiotheraphy.

He served as technical principal researcher in projects such Crack Project related non-destructive testing of conductive materials.